Architecture Avant-garde in architecture The late 19th and the early 20th century was a time of momentous change – including in art. Artists rejected the established patterns and prevailing aesthetic principles and began their search for new means of expression. Avant-garde artistic trends such as cubism, expressionism, futurism and constructivism came to being and influenced the art of the whole century. Architecture, as an art of design, engaged in a constant dialogue with the changing reality, underwent a complete metamorphosis. In their quest for new solutions, architects were inspired by the materials that had never been used before in such an avant-garde context. The art’s fascination with new technology also had a tremendous impact on architecture. The large-scale urban experiments conducted in the 20s and 30s of the 20th century in different parts of the world sought to establish a new set of aesthetical standards and promote their attendant values. With its inherent features such as discovery of new routes and application of innovative design solutions, the avant-garde architecture accompanied artists also in the second half of the 20th century. Deconstructivism was one of its striking manifestations. The characteristics of the deconstructivist architecture include, for example, irregular bodies of buildings, fragmented, multi-layer form with abstract geometries and unique combinations of materials. The most prominent representatives of deconstructivism include Peter Eisenman, Frank Gehry, Zaha Hadid and Daniel Libeskind, the architect of ZŁOTA 44. The extraordinary and unorthodox projects by Daniel Libeskind – the world-renowned architect of Polish descent – often serve as monuments due to their iconic element. Libeskind’s designs are created with the idea to evoke special aesthetic experience in the urban space.